moreIn 2010, Dave Brailsford faced a tough job.

No British cyclist had ever won the Tour de France, but as the new General Manager and Performance Director for Team Sky (Great Britain’s professional cycling team), that’s what Brailsford was asked to do.

His approach was simple.

Brailsford believed in a concept that he referred to as the “aggregation of marginal gains.” He explained it as the “1 percent margin for improvement in everything you do.” His belief was that if you improved every area related to cycling by just 1 percent, then those small gains would add up to remarkable improvement.

They started by optimizing the things you might expect: the nutrition of riders, their weekly training program, the ergonomics of the bike seat, and the weight of the tires.

But Brailsford and his team didn’t stop there. They searched for 1 percent improvements in tiny areas that were overlooked by almost everyone else: discovering the pillow that offered the best sleep and taking it with them to hotels, testing for the most effective type of massage gel, and teaching riders the best way to wash their hands to avoid infection. They searched for 1 percent improvements everywhere.

Brailsford believed that if they could successfully execute this strategy, then Team Sky would be in a position to win the Tour de France in five years time.

He was wrong. They won it in three years.

In 2012, Team Sky rider Sir Bradley Wiggins became the first British cyclist to win the Tour de France. That same year, Brailsford coached the British cycling team at the 2012 Olympic Games and dominated the competition by winning 70 percent of the gold medals available.

In 2013, Team Sky repeated their feat by winning the Tour de France again, this time with rider Chris Froome. Many have referred to the British cycling feats in the Olympics and the Tour de France over the past 10 years as the most successful run in modern cycling history.

And now for the important question: what can we learn from Brailsford’s approach?

The Aggregation of Marginal Gains

It’s so easy to overestimate the importance of one defining moment and underestimate the value of making better decisions on a daily basis.

Almost every habit that you have — good or bad — is the result of many small decisions over time.

And yet, how easily we forget this when we want to make a change.

So often we convince ourselves that change is only meaningful if there is some large, visible outcome associated with it. Whether it is losing weight, building a business, traveling the world or any other goal, we often put pressure on ourselves to make some earth-shattering improvement that everyone will talk about.

Meanwhile, improving by just 1 percent isn’t notable (and sometimes it isn’t even noticeable). But it can be just as meaningful, especially in the long run.

And from what I can tell, this pattern works the same way in reverse. (An aggregation of marginal losses, in other words.) If you find yourself stuck with bad habits or poor results, it’s usually not because something happened overnight. It’s the sum of many small choices — a 1 percent decline here and there — that eventually leads to a problem.


Inspiration for this image came from a graphic in The Slight Edge by Jeff Olson.

In the beginning, there is basically no difference between making a choice that is 1% better or 1% worse. (In other words, it won’t impact you very much today.) But as time goes on, these small improvements or declines compound and you suddenly find a very big gap between people who make slightly better decisions on a daily basis and those who don’t. This is why small choices (“I’ll take a burger and fries”) don’t make much of a difference at the time, but add up over the long-term.

On a related note, this is why I love setting a schedule for important things, planning for failure, and using the “never miss twice” rule. I know that it’s not a big deal if I make a mistake or slip up on a habit every now and then. It’s the compound effect of never getting back on track that causes problems. By setting a schedule to never miss twice, you can prevent simple errors from snowballing out of control.

The Bottom Line

Success is a few simple disciplines, practiced every day; while failure is simply a few errors in judgment, repeated every day.
—Jim Rohn

You probably won’t find yourself in the Tour de France anytime soon, but the concept of aggregating marginal gains can be useful all the same.

Most people love to talk about success (and life in general) as an event. We talk about losing 50 pounds or building a successful business or winning the Tour de France as if they are events. But the truth is that most of the significant things in life aren’t stand-alone events, but rather the sum of all the moments when we chose to do things 1 percent better or 1 percent worse. Aggregating these marginal gains makes a difference.

There is power in small wins and slow gains. This is why average speed yields above average results. This is why the system is greater than the goal. This is why mastering your habits is more important than achieving a certain outcome.

Where are the 1 percent improvements in your life?

About the Author:
 James Clear is an entrepreneur, weightlifter, and travel photographer in 18 countries. He writes at, where he uses proven research and real-world experiences to share practical ideas for living a healthy life. You can get new strategies for sticking to healthy habits, losing weight, gaining muscle, and more by joining his free newsletter.

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Written by James Clear

James Clear writes at, where he uses behavior science to help you master your habits and improve your health. For useful ideas on improving your mental and physical performance, join his free newsletter.

Or, download his free guide: Transform Your Habits.

  • Rosanna Casper

    My 2 day exercise rule has made such a difference in my life. I never go more than 2 days without working out. After 2 days, it becomes so much easier to make excuses… and it takes a lot more willpower to get back to the gym.

  • Why should people who make 1% poorer decisions be penalized? We need redistribution to even out the results. Because . . . inequality!

    • CrosbyTee

      It is known!

  • Lakshpri

    This is a
    wonderful post. I completely agree. I’d like to share this on my blog and on my
    networks, if you don’t mind.

    I feel the same way about acquiring certain skills. Even if I do
    not possess the most talent, it is amazing what a little learning and doing
    everyday can add up to over the long run. I have seen these results with my
    reading on current events and esoteric topics.


    • CrosbyTee

      Respect copyrights!

  • Wikiwako

    Excellent post.

    “Compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world. He who understands it, earns it … he who doesn’t … pays it.”

    ― Albert Einstein

  • Excellent post James. I wonder if when people complain about plateau-ing, they need to change the little things by 1%. Use a different grip while working out, or change your workout routine during the week.

  • Luke

    i think it’s a bad example. maybe they have just got the best doping and all the rest of the 1% adjustments didn’t make a difference

  • Dematizer

    Great post! A little mental earthquake behind my desktop 🙂

  • Vandziux

    Awesome article! Thank you so much. It is so easy to forget or overlook those little things and details that actually improve your life in a long run.

  • Aimee

    very inspiring post! Thanks 🙂

  • Bina

    Great post James. It can apply to personal goals as much as it can for a business or an organisation.

  • Everything is a process but if we look at thing like event we get demoralized easier or we don’t start because other can do it better. They can because they’ve worked hundreds of hours to get better at it.

  • Jon DeJong

    Great post. Back in the day when I was fit and in shape, I always used to tell myself before making a bad small decision, “Your fitness is the sum of millions of small decisions.” Often (not always) helped 🙂

  • This is awesome, it’s not often something makes me question my fundamental approaches. Bookmarked & shared, thank you.

  • Casie [kay-cee; KC]

    I’ve started practicing yoga just a “little bit” each day. By putting it into my mind that it doesn’t have to be a HUGE change of pace or accelerated practice, it’s helped to start with “just 10 minutes” and expand on that day to day. A few days a week I also ADD to my practice or change it up to try new things and explore how much stronger I’ve become, and in just a week of doing this I’ve increased to about a 30 minute practice.

  • Swanky Cyn

    Spot on!!

  • Sathya Sundar

    I cannot agree more. I have practized Marginal gains in my work and yields gains over the long term

  • victor willemse

    Brilliant post! *Eyes wide open. James – if I ever become successful, I promise that I will hunt you down to say face to face thank you for this post.

  • OmarSayyed

    This is absolutely spot on.

  • pendolino

    agreed. thoughtful piece

  • دانلود نرم افزار
  • This is very similar to the Japanese concept of Kaizen (incremental improvement), which Mazda has famously been using for quite some time now.